[007] [STM32] 以面向对象的思想编写按键程序

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STM32
CubeMX配置
按键管理框架
按键驱动层
按键驱动框架层
按键管理层
应用示例

本文为百问网&韦东山【物联网智能家居实战训练营】课程笔记

声明:本项目参考:MultiButton


1 CubeMX配置

在这里插入图片描述

  1. RCC:配置HSE为晶体/陶瓷谐振器
  2. SYS:Debug选择SW模式
  3. 时钟:选择HSE作为PLL时钟源,将其改为8MHz(默认),然后选择PLLCLK作为系统时钟源,设为系统时钟为72MHz
  4. 按键引脚:PA0(wk_up)下拉输入,PA15(key1)和PC5(key0)上拉输入
  5. LED引脚:PA8(红灯)和PD2(黄灯)设为推挽输出,默认输出高电平
  6. TIM6:向上计数模式(TIM6&7只支持向上计数),psc = 72 - 1,arr = 1000 - 1,即1ms更新中断,然后配置NVIC使能TIM6全局中断
  7. USART1:TX-PA9,RX-PA10,用于打印按键触发事件信息
  8. 以单独的c/h文件生成MDK工程

2 按键管理框架

2.1 按键驱动层

按键底层驱动通过CubeMX配置相应引脚GPIO模式,然后调用HAL库初始化:

void MX_GPIO_Init(void)
{
  GPIO_InitTypeDef GPIO_InitStruct = {0};

  __HAL_RCC_GPIOA_CLK_ENABLE();
  __HAL_RCC_GPIOC_CLK_ENABLE();

  GPIO_InitStruct.Pin = WKUP_Pin;
  GPIO_InitStruct.Mode = GPIO_MODE_INPUT;
  GPIO_InitStruct.Pull = GPIO_PULLDOWN;
  HAL_GPIO_Init(WKUP_GPIO_Port, &GPIO_InitStruct);

  GPIO_InitStruct.Pin = KEY0_Pin;
  GPIO_InitStruct.Mode = GPIO_MODE_INPUT;
  GPIO_InitStruct.Pull = GPIO_PULLUP;
  HAL_GPIO_Init(KEY0_GPIO_Port, &GPIO_InitStruct);

  GPIO_InitStruct.Pin = KEY1_Pin;
  GPIO_InitStruct.Mode = GPIO_MODE_INPUT;
  GPIO_InitStruct.Pull = GPIO_PULLUP;
  HAL_GPIO_Init(KEY1_GPIO_Port, &GPIO_InitStruct);
}

2.2 按键驱动框架层

按键驱动框架比较简单,将获取IO电平的HAL库函数二次封装一下即可:

uint8_t wkup_key_read_pin(void)
{
    return HAL_GPIO_ReadPin(WKUP_GPIO_Port, WKUP_Pin);
}

uint8_t key0_read_pin(void)
{
    return HAL_GPIO_ReadPin(KEY0_GPIO_Port, KEY0_Pin);
}

uint8_t key1_read_pin(void)
{
    return HAL_GPIO_ReadPin(KEY1_GPIO_Port, KEY1_Pin);
}

2.3 按键管理层

2.3.1 按键对象状态

enum key_state {
    Init_None_State = 0,        /* 初始未按下状态 */
    Init_Press_State,           /* 初次按下状态 */
    Press_Check_State,          /* 连击检查状态 */
    Continuous_Press_State,     /* 连续按下状态 */
    Long_Press_State,           /* 长按状态 */
};

2.3.2 按键对象事件

enum key_event { 
    Press_Down = 0,             /* 按键按下,每次按下都触发 */
    Press_Up,                   /* 按键弹起,每次松开都触发 */
    Singe_Click,                /* 单击触发(仅触发一次) */
    Double_Click,               /* 双击触发(仅触发一次) */
    Short_Press_Repeat,         /* 每次短按时都会触发(按下次数>=2) */
    Long_Press_Start,           /* 首次进入长按状态触发(仅触发一次) */
    Long_Press_Hold,            /* 长按保持状态触发(每经过一个循环长按间隔触发一次) */
    Event_Sum,                  /* 事件总数 */
    None_Press                  /* 未按下 */
};

2.3.3 按键对象句柄结构体

struct key_handle
{
    uint16_t tick;                                          	  /* 按键系统时间片 */
    uint8_t repeat_cnt     : 4;                             	  /* 按键短按次数 */
    uint8_t event   	   : 4;                             	  /* 触发事件 */
    uint8_t state          : 3;                             	  /* 按键状态 */
    uint8_t debounce_tick  : 3;                             	  /* 消抖时间片 */
    uint8_t active_level   : 1;                                   /* 按键有效按下电平 */
    uint8_t key_level      : 1;                             	  /* 按键引脚当前电平 */
    uint8_t (* pin_read)(void);                         	      /* 获取按键引脚电平 */
    void (* event_callback[Event_Sum])(struct key_handle* key);   /* 按键事件回调函数 */
    struct key_handle* next;                                      /* 单向链表next指针 */
};
typedef struct key_handle *key_handle_t;

2.3.4 初始化按键对象

static key_handle_t _key_slist_head = NULL;  // 按键管理单链表头结点

/**
 * @brief   初始化按键对象
 * @param   key             按键对象句柄
 * @param   gpio_pin_read   获取按键电平函数指针
 * @param   active_level    按键按下有效电平
 * @return  0: succeed -1: failed
 */
int8_t key_init(struct key_handle *key, uint8_t (*gpio_pin_read)(void), uint8_t active_level)
{
    if (key == NULL)
        return -1;
    memset(key, 0, sizeof(struct key_handle));
    key->event = None_Press;
    key->active_level = active_level;
    key->pin_read = gpio_pin_read;
    key->key_level = key->pin_read();

    return 0;
}

2.3.5 注册按键

/**
 * @brief   注册按键:将按键对象插入到按键管理链表中
 * @param   key 按键对象句柄
 * @return  0: succeed -1: failed
 */
int8_t key_handle_register(struct key_handle *key)
{
    struct key_handle *key_slist_node = _key_slist_head;  // 获取头指针的地址 (无头结点单链表)

    if (key == NULL)
        return -1;

    // 尾插(不带头结点的单链表, 头指针需做特殊判断)
    if (_key_slist_head == NULL) // 头指针为空==表空
    {
        _key_slist_head = key;
        key->next = NULL;
        return 0;
    }

    while(key_slist_node)
    {
        if (key_slist_node == key) return -1;       // 重复注册
        if(key_slist_node->next == NULL) break;     // 已经遍历到最后一个节点,必须在此跳出循环, 否则key_slist_node==NULL
        key_slist_node = key_slist_node->next;
    }
    key_slist_node->next = key;  
    key->next = NULL; 

    return 0;
}

2.3.6 脱离按键

/**
 * @brief   脱离按键:将按键对象从按键管理链表中脱离
 * @param   key 按键对象句柄
 * @return  0: succeed -1: failed
 */
int8_t key_handle_detach(struct key_handle *key)
{
    // 解1级引用指向指针变量, 解2级引用指向指针变量所指向的变量 
    struct key_handle **key_slist_node = &_key_slist_head;  // 指向头指针, 直接操作原指针变量(不然最后无法修改头指针)
    struct key_handle *node_temp;
    if (key == NULL || _key_slist_head == NULL)
        return -1;

    while(*key_slist_node && *key_slist_node != key)
    {
        node_temp = *key_slist_node;
        if((*key_slist_node)->next == NULL) break;
        key_slist_node = &node_temp->next;     // 不能直接解1级引用赋值,会破坏原链表
    }

    if (*key_slist_node != key)
        return -1;
    *key_slist_node = (*key_slist_node)->next;

    return 0;
}

2.3.7 注册事件回调函数

/**
 * @brief   注册按键事件触发回调函数
 * @param   key             按键对象句柄
 * @param   event           触发事件类型
 * @param   event_callback  事件回调函数
 * @return  0: succeed -1: failed
 */
int8_t key_event_callback_register(struct key_handle *key, uint8_t event, void (* event_callback)(key_handle_t key))
{
    if (key == NULL || event >= Event_Sum)
        return -1;
    key->event_callback[event] = event_callback;

    return 0;
}

2.3.8 按键状态机

在这里插入图片描述

状态符号 按键对象状态 含义
state0 Init_None_State 初始未按下状态
state1 Init_Press_State 初次按下状态
state2 Press_Check_State 连击检查状态
state3 Continuous_Press_State 连续按下状态
state5 Long_Press_State 长按状态
/**
 * @brief   处理所有按键对象的状态机
 * @param   key 按键对象句柄
 * @return  None
 */
static void key_handler(struct key_handle *key)
{
    uint8_t key_level_temp = key->pin_read();

    if(key->state != Init_None_State) key->tick++;

    /* 按键消抖(按键状态发生变化保持DEBOUNCE_TICK时间片开始保存按键引脚电平) */
    if(key_level_temp != key->key_level)
    {
        if(++(key->debounce_tick) >= Double_Click)
        {
            key->key_level = key_level_temp;
            key->debounce_tick = 0;
        }
    }
    else
    {
        key->debounce_tick = 0;
    }
        
    /* 按键状态机 */
    switch (key->state)
    {
    case Init_None_State:
        /* 初始态-> 初始按下态  Press_Down */
        if(key->key_level == key->active_level)   
        {
            key->event = (uint8_t)Press_Down;
            __KEY_EVENT_CALL(Press_Down);
            key->tick  = 0;
            key->repeat_cnt = 1;
            key->state  = Init_Press_State;
        }
        else
        {
            key->event = (uint8_t)None_Press;
        }    
        break;

    case Init_Press_State:
        /* 第一次按下松开:初始按下态->连击检查态  Press_Up */
        if(key->key_level != key->active_level)
        {
            key->event = (uint8_t)Press_Up;
            __KEY_EVENT_CALL(Press_Up);
            key->tick = 0;
            key->state = Press_Check_State;

        }
        /* 第一次按下后长按(>LONG_PRESS_START_TICK):初始按下态->长按态  Long_Press_Start */
        else if(key->tick > LONG_PRESS_START_TICK)
        { 
            key->event = (uint8_t)Long_Press_Start;
            __KEY_EVENT_CALL(Long_Press_Start);
            key->state = Long_Press_State;
        }
        break;

    case Press_Check_State:
        /* 松开后再次按下:连击检查态->连击态 Press_Down & Short_Press_Repeat */
        if(key->key_level == key->active_level)
        {
            key->event = (uint8_t)Press_Down;
            __KEY_EVENT_CALL(Press_Down);
            key->repeat_cnt++;
            __KEY_EVENT_CALL(Short_Press_Repeat);
            key->tick = 0;
            key->state = Continuous_Press_State;
        } 
        /* 松开后再次没有按下(>SHORT_PRESS_START_TICK):连击检查态->初始态 repeat_cnt=1: Singe_Click; repeat_cnt=2: Double_Click */
        else if(key->tick > SHORT_PRESS_START_TICK)
        {                
            if(key->repeat_cnt == 1)
            {
                key->event = (uint8_t)Singe_Click;
                __KEY_EVENT_CALL(Singe_Click);
            }
            /* 连击态松开后会返回此条件下触发  todo: <可以做n连击判断> */
            else if(key->repeat_cnt == 2)
            {
                key->event = (uint8_t)Double_Click;
                __KEY_EVENT_CALL(Double_Click);
            }
            key->state = Init_None_State;
        }
        break;

    case Continuous_Press_State:
        /* 连击后松开:连击态->连击检查态(< SHORT_PRESS_START_TICK)) : 连击态->初始态(>= SHORT_PRESS_START_TICK) */
        if(key->key_level != key->active_level)
        {
            key->event = (uint8_t)Press_Up;
            __KEY_EVENT_CALL(Press_Up);

            if(key->tick < SHORT_PRESS_START_TICK)
            {
                key->tick = 0;
                key->state = Press_Check_State;
            }
            else
            {
                key->state = Init_None_State;
            }
        }
        /* 连击后长按(>SHORT_TICKS): 连击态 -> 初始态 */
        else if(key->tick > SHORT_PRESS_START_TICK)
        {
            key->state = Init_Press_State;  // 可以回到Init_None_State/Init_Press_State
        }
        break;

    case Long_Press_State:
        /* 长按保持  Long_Press_Hold */
        if(key->key_level == key->active_level)
        {
            key->event = (uint8_t)Long_Press_Hold;
            if (key->tick % LONG_HOLD_CYCLE_TICK == 0)     
            {
                __KEY_EVENT_CALL(Long_Press_Hold);
            }
        }
        /* 长按松开:长按态-> 初始态 */
        else
        {
            key->event = (uint8_t)Press_Up;
            __KEY_EVENT_CALL(Press_Up);

            key->state = Init_None_State;
        }
        break;
    }  
}

2.3.9 遍历调用按键对象

/**
 * @brief   每经过一个滴答周期调用一次按键处理函数(裸机放1ms中断, OS放线程或中断)
 * @param   None
 * @return  None
 */
void key_tick(void)
{
    struct key_handle *key_slist_node;
    static uint8_t tick_cnt = 0;

    if (++tick_cnt < CHECK_TICK)
        return;
    
    for (key_slist_node = _key_slist_head; key_slist_node != NULL; key_slist_node = key_slist_node->next)
    {
        key_handler(key_slist_node);
    }
    tick_cnt = 0;
}

注意:裸机环境下,函数必须在中断中(默认1ms,可修改)调用,上RTOS可以在线程上下文中检测。

3 应用示例

static struct key_handle _key0;
static void key0_event_callback(key_handle_t key)
{
    switch(key->event)
    {
    case Press_Down:
        UART_DEBUG("key0 press down");
    break;

    case Press_Up:
        UART_DEBUG("key0 press up");
    break;

    case Singe_Click:
        UART_DEBUG("key0 single click");
    break;

    case Double_Click:
        UART_DEBUG("key0 double click");
    break;

    case Short_Press_Repeat:
        UART_DEBUG("key0 short press repeat");
    break;

    case Long_Press_Start:
        UART_DEBUG("key0 long press start");
    break;

    case Long_Press_Hold:
        key_handle_detach(&_key0);
        UART_DEBUG("key0 long press hold");
    break;

    default:
    break;
    }
}

void key_test_sample(void)
{
    key_init(&_key0, key0_read_pin, GPIO_PIN_RESET);
    key_event_callback_register(&_key0, Press_Down,         key0_event_callback);
    key_event_callback_register(&_key0, Press_Up,           key0_event_callback);
    key_event_callback_register(&_key0, Singe_Click,        key0_event_callback);
    key_event_callback_register(&_key0, Double_Click,       key0_event_callback);
    key_event_callback_register(&_key0, Short_Press_Repeat, key0_event_callback);
    key_event_callback_register(&_key0, Long_Press_Start,   key0_event_callback);
    key_event_callback_register(&_key0, Long_Press_Hold,    key0_event_callback);
    key_handle_register(&_key0);
}

在定时器中断回调函数里检测:

void HAL_TIM_PeriodElapsedCallback(TIM_HandleTypeDef *htim)
{
    if (htim->Instance == TIM6)
    {
        key_tick();
    }
}

串口打印信息:
在这里插入图片描述


代码已开源到gitee:以面向对象思想编写的按键管理框架

END

版权声明:本文为CSDN博主「柯西的彷徨」的原创文章,遵循CC 4.0 BY-SA版权协议,转载请附上原文出处链接及本声明。
原文链接:https://blog.csdn.net/kouxi1/article/details/123008273

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